In a large Dutch oven or kettle, combine the black eyed peas, ham bone or ham hocks, and 6 cups water. Cut 1 of the onions in half and add it to the pot along with the garlic and bay leaf. Bring to a boil, reduce the heat to medium-low, and simmer gently until the black eyed peas are tender, but not mushy, 2 to 2-1/2 hours.
Remove the ham bone or hocks, cut off the meat; dice and set aside. Drain all remaining liquid from the black eyed peas; remove and discard the bay leaf, onion pieces, and garlic. Set black eyed peas aside.
Add 2-1/2 cups of water to the pot and bring to a boil. Add the rice, cover, and simmer until the rice is almost tender, about 10 to 12 minutes.
Mince the remaining onion, then add to the rice along with the black eyed peas, tomatoes, and their juices, red and green bell pepper, celery, jalapeno pepper, Creole seasoning, thyme, cumin, and salt. Cook until the rice is tender, 5 to 8 minutes.
Stir in the sliced green onions and the reserved diced ham.